Based on genetic diversity of three A. marina varieties, Duke et al., (1998) [5] suggested that the split occurred during the ice age, when the emerged land barrier between New Guinea and Australia isolated the populations on the west coast (var. (2) What are the phylogenetic relationships of the five IWP Avicennia species and what do they tell us about evolution of flower characters? The result was also supported by two morphological traits in floral structure: stigma position in relation to the anthers and the length of the styles. 1 Five species of Avicennia in the Indo-West Pacific region have been previously described. Avicennia marina, commonly known as grey mangrove or white mangrove, is a species of mangrove tree classified in the plant family Acanthaceae (formerly in the Verbenaceae or Avicenniaceae). data. We next investigated the evolution of the flower characters among Avicennia species in IWP. eucalyptifolia). Phylogeography of the reef fish Cephalopholis argus (Epinephelidae) indicates Pleistocene isolation across the indo-pacific barrier with contemporary overlap in the coral triangle, Major Genetic Differences between Crown-of-Thorns Starfish (Acanthaster planci) Populations in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, The genetic legacy of the Quaternary ice ages, South Alligator River, North Territory, Australia. The distribution of ancestral Avicennia was likely to have been similar to its present location, extending from Japan to Borneo and from the Marshall Islands to the Red Sea [40, 41]. rumphiana subclade (P = 0.59; BS = 57% and 51% for ML and MP, respectively). One of the species in the IWP, A. marina, has the broadest distribution of all mangroves, ranging from approximately 25° N to 38° S. Three infraspecific taxa within A. marina have been recognized: A. marina var. Transcriptome analysis of the Holly mangrove Acanthus ilicifolius and its terrestrial relative, Acanthus leucostachyus, provides insights into adaptation to intertidal zones. IWP: Indo-West Pacific region; AEP: Atlantic-East Pacific region. Each gene alignment was tested with a 5% level chi-squared test for stationary base composition at variable sites using TREE-PUZZLE-5.2 [16]. We estimated species divergence time with fossil calibration using coding sequences (CDS). Our analyses indicate that the ancestral stigma position in Avicennia from IWP is between anthers, and the ancestral style length is over 1.0 mm. These have been sequenced in our lab or have published in genomes or transcriptomes [28, 29], as well as a fossil record [30]. Our phylogenetic tree suggests that A. rumphiana and A. alba are closely related to each other and form a basal subclade in the IWP lineage. Trop WATER, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia, 3 Those two species were close to the three varieties of the A. marina complex (P = 0.99; BS = 70% and 65%). Within the IWP clade, the A. alba/A. It is prominently characterised by its elongated and pointed leaves that are coloured darker green on the upperside and paler, whitish on the underside. Avicennia alba Blume - AVICENNIACEAE - Dicotyledon Common name in Tamil : Vellai kandai Common name in Telugu : Gundu mada, vilava mada. The HKY85+G model was used with different transition/transversion rate ratios (kappa) and different shape parameters (alpha) among the loci. Bootstrapping of the datasets was performed with 500 replications, and all node values for the ML trees are represented as the proportion of replicates in which that clade was recovered. Molecular phylogenies can shed light on evolution of morphological traits. We first reconstructed the phylogeny of Avicennia, with Thunbergia grandiflora as the outgroup, using the combined sequence data from two chloroplast segments. Interestingly, these subclades can be clearly differentiated using two morphological traits in floral structure, i.e. The two characters were coded and scored following morphological descriptions in the literature [1, 2, 6, 32] and our field observations. Trouver la graines de mangrove photo idéale Une vaste collection, un choix incroyable, plus de 100 millions d’images LD et DG abordables de haute qualité. See the S4 Fig) MDS analysis of the mean pairwise genetic divergence among IWP species, again based on our sample of 25 nuclear genes, revealed a consistent pattern, with A. officinalis and A. integra, A. alba and A. rumphiana, and the three varieties of A. marina forming clear groups identical to those revealed by our phylogenetic analyses (Fig 3). eucalyptifolia, and var. Lowered sea levels resulted in the emergence of land barriers in the IWP region [44], particularly within the Indo-Australia archipelago, which may have facilitated isolation of the Avicennia populations and the subsequent diversification of this clade throughout the region. Ancestral states reconstruction for stigma position is shown in the S5 Fig, while the results for style length are in the S6 Fig. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. However, the divergence between var. Our results shed fresh light on the evolution of this important mangrove clade and should enable further studies of this group’s remarkable adaptation to the intertidal environment. The same analysis was conducted among IWP species calculated using our sample of 25 nuclear genes as well. Giang LH, Geada GL, Hong PN, Tuan MS, Lien NTH, Ikeda S. Genetic Variation of Two Mangrove Species in Kandelia (Rhizophoraceae) in Vietnam and Surrounding Area Revealed by Microsatellite Markers, Phylogeography of Ceriops tagal (Rhizophoraceae) in Southeast Asia: the land barrier of the Malay Peninsula has caused population differentiation between the Indian Ocean and South China Sea. The shrub does not grow more than 20 m. The dark green leaves, 15 cm long by 5 cm wide, have a silvery gray under leaf and grow in opposites. Thus, we set out to re-evaluate the phylogenetic relationships among species in Avicennia based on a robust approach involving wide sampling and sequencing of a number of DNA segments. It plays a significant role in supporting the coastal ecosystem and holds unique potential for studying molecular mechanisms underlying ecological adaptation. All sequences were deposited in GenBank. marina) from those on the east (var. The BI, ML, and MP methods yielded identical topologies (only the BI tree is shown in Fig 2). Fig 1 shows divergence time estimates. eucalyptifolia near the Strait of Torres, may experienced several rounds of isolation, dispersal and admixture. PAML 4: phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood, Inferring speciation times under an episodic molecular clock, A rich fossil record yields calibrated phylogeny for Acanthaceae (Lamiales) and evidence for marked biases in timing and directionality of intercontinental disjunctions. The style of A. rumphiana and A. alba is minute and narrow, ending well below the anthers. The style degenerated and the stigma became positioned under the anthers in the other IWP Avicennia species, especially for A. abla and A. rumphiana. australasica [1, 5]. mcmctree employs two strategies to model the change in evolutionary rate among lineages: independent rates and auto-correlated rates [26]. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses strongly support a subclade with A. officinalis and A. integra (Fig 2). The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. (Avicenniaceae), one of the most diverse mangrove genera, is distributed widely in tropical and subtropical intertidal zones worldwide. Library News Use cases. If you have any useful information about this plant, please leave a comment. Members of the genus often occupy newly-formed seaward mangrove habitats on tropical coasts. We re-designed allele-specific primers for these genes based on the sequences of isolated single bands that corresponded to the brightest-staining product that corresponded to the size of products from other taxa. Huang Y, Zhu C, Li X, Li X, Hu L, Tan F, et al. Duke NC. Genetic structure and evolution of species in the mangrove genus Avicennia (Avicenniaceae) in the Indo-West Pacific, Morphological variation in the mangrove genus Avicennia in Australasia: Systematic and ecological considerations, Drifting propagules and receding swamps: Genetic footprints of mangrove recolonization and dispersal along tropical coasts. australasica and var. Team RC. We obtained samples from eight accessions of Avicennia, including A. germinans, A. officinalis, A. integra, A. alba, A. rumphiana, and three varieties of A. marina (A. marina var. Darriba D, Taboada GL, Doallo R, Posada D. jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing. (Lamiales), A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Genome sequencing of the important oilseed crop Sesamum indicum L, Preliminary palynological data on floristic and climatic changes during the Middle Eocene-Early Oligocene of the eastern Ebro Basin, northeast Spain, Floral traits and reproduction of Avicennia schaueriana Moldenke (Acanthaceae): a generalist pollination system in the Lamiales. Previous morphological analyses produced conflicting results regarding their affinity to other species of Avicennia. The diversification of the IWP lineage was dated to late Miocene (c. 6 MYA) and may have been driven largely by fluctuating sea levels since that time. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day. The divergence time for species in the Indo-Western Pacific (IWP) region was calibrated by mcmctree 4.8a [25]. Some studies on phylogeographic patterns of this genus based on a few nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers have been conducted for three AEP species of Avicennia [8, 9]. eucalyptifolia, and A. marina var. The three varieties of A. marina formed another subclade (P = 1.00, BS = 100% for ML and MP). Since our data set included introns as well as CDS, we adjusted the substitutions rate (μ) by inferring the μ intron/μCDS using Kintron/KCDS, where K is the number of segregating sites between A. marina and A. alba from 24 nuclear genes. We would like to thank Chung-I Wu for his critical evaluation of the manuscript. The Phanerozoic record of global sea-level change, Global distribution and genetic discontinuities of mangroves–emerging patterns in the evolution of Rhizophora, Biodiversity hotspots: evolutionary origins of biodiversity in wrasses (Halichoeres: Labridae) in the Indo-Pacific and new world tropics. Two selected morphological characters of taxonomic importance (source from [1]) have been mapped on the tree. Sea levels, however, began to fluctuate because of climate change [43]. (3) When did the IWP Avicennia species diversify and what was the possible driving force behind this divergence? As the most dominant Avicennia species in this area, A. marina displayed a similar evolutionary history based on the present study. If you would like to support this site, please consider, Solitary tree with lots of pneumatophores (breathing roots), http://en.sl.life.ku.dk/Publikationer/Udgivelser/PopulaerPublikationer.aspx?katid={D28373CC-6EF3-4EF8-B097-6D83FABF209E}&serieid={9F1C3DB1-6E7B-4CF1-AF53-F480B0CB40EF}&sort=title, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Wide sampling and population-genomic studies are necessary to reveal the demography of Avicennia marina and to understand the causes of evolution and diversification of Avicennia species. Pneumatophores to about 20 cm tall, pencil-like. Long branches between the crown node and the roots of both the IWP and AEP clades indicated that the two clades had evolved independently over a long period since the initial split from the common ancestor. The forward and reverse primers of each pair were located in different exons of the same gene to amplify a segment with introns. Hainan Dongzhai Harbor National Nature Reserve, Haikou, Hainan, China. A Bayesian dating method with a relaxed molecular clock was implemented using the mcmctree program in PAML 4.8a [25]. The phylogenetic positions of A. alba and A. rumphiana were still unclear in the chloroplast tree (P < 0.5 and BS < 50%). All characteristics were weighted equally, and gaps were treated as missing data. Although the first fossil record of Avicennia in the IWP region dates back to the late Eocene of southwest Australia, significant flourishing of Avicennia in this region has occurred since the Miocene [39–41]. The length of style is about 2mm (Fig 2, [1]). Image of bunch, buds, bloom - 155373640 The differential contributions of herkogamy and dichogamy as mechanisms of avoiding self-interference in four self-incompatible Epimedium species, The avoidance of interference between the presentation of pollen and stigmas in angiosperms II. The study was conducted during February 2008–April 2010. The classification and phylogeny of Avicennia were first studied by Tomlinson (1986) [2], Duke (1990, 1991) [1, 6] and Duke et al., (1998) [5] based on morphological and allozyme data. Within the AEP lineage, A. germinans was the sister to A. schaueriana (P = 0.99; BS = 78% and 72% for ML and MP, respectively). Sceura marina Forssk. Bars show the error bar of 95% confidential interval of divergence time. Prior to combining the sequences, congruence was examined using the partition–homogeneity test by PAUP* 4b10 [17, 18]. Two primer pairs produced PCR products with two bands, widely spaced in size. The calibration point at the basal position of Avicennia was set as B (0.1, 0.5), with 100 million years as one time unit. No specific permission was required for sampling these species in this study. Introduction to botany. This produces a large, fleshy seed, often germinating on the tree and falling as a seedling. The distribution of the major biogeographic barriers and the shallow seas in the IWP region has not changed significantly since that time [42]. integra lineage, with style length about 2mm and stigma level in the middle of the variety anthers (Fig 2). Focusing on the IWP branch, we reconstructed a detailed phylogenetic tree based on sequences from 25 nuclear genes. Distributions of species are color coded on the map (modified from [34]). However, so far studies of the species from IWP have been relying on morphological and allozyme data [5]. Red rectangle shows the earliest fossil records of mangrove lineages while gray one shows that of inland relatives. The Officinalis lineage includes A. officinalis and A. integra, while the latter includes all other species. This tree with pencil roots and velvety furry spoon-shaped leaves is sometimes seen in our mangroves, but is not as commonly encountered as Avicennia alba. integra subclade is more closely related to the A. marina complex than to the A. alba/A. In this study, diversification of the species of Avicennia in the IWP region was dated at approximately 6.0 MYA (95% HPD: 2.8~9.7 MYA; Fig 2). Analysis of 142 genes resolves the rapid diversification of the rice genus, Molecular phylogenetics and morphological evolution of Thunbergioideae (Acanthaceae), Toward a comprehensive understanding of phylogenetic relationships among lineages of Acanthaceae s.l. In the combined chloroplast tree, species of Avicennia fell into two clades: five in the IWP region forming one clade and the remaining three in the AEP region forming the other (S2 and S3 Figs; Posterior Probability P = 1.00 for BI; Bootstraps BS = 100% and 99% for ML and MP, respectively). Our results support two monophyletic clades across all species worldwide in Avicennia: an Atlantic-East Pacific (AEP) lineage and an Indo-West Pacific (IWP) lineage. Maximum parsimony (MP) analyses were conducted using PAUP* 4.0b10 [18] with a “heuristic search”: tree bisection–reconnection branch swapping, MULPARS option on, and 1,000 random taxon additions. All sequences data for this study are available from the GenBank database (accession numbers is listed in S2 Table). Re-Evaluation of Phylogenetic Relationships among Species of the Mangrove Genus, GUID: 63DA0CA3-EC5D-4AA7-A0D6-D7CEADB0C3D1, GUID: 5CC6068B-DB2C-408D-BCF6-67AB33FCD6E7, GUID: 70C97B98-BA74-418D-8801-3A1EB98618DD, GUID: 4AA3DB75-B986-4321-8971-6D696EDCC597, GUID: E585D496-242D-4901-871E-157AE35FBC22, GUID: 98583B39-05B3-47F0-BB19-5149D40758C2, GUID: 454D30AB-CF63-427F-B384-5FA249E25928, GUID: 9D868FD1-FE5B-4770-A7F0-7C191FA0FC57, GUID: 07EFB3F2-3671-4093-A690-30FC7CD6766E, GUID: 0AB36717-AAEF-45AF-BD84-C19DAA0A55E6. Reported number of nodes produced annually along the main axis by different mangrove species around the world. Evidence from molecular markers [7–9] shed some light on the patterns of population genetics and phylogeny of Avicennia species in the AEP region. Seeds and Seedlings. All gene segments we obtained satisfied the stationarity test (P > 5%) for base composition at the variable sites and were retained for further analysis. Avicennia alba forms a low, dense bushy crown often branching near the base of the trunk. Previous morphological analyses produced conflicting results regarding their affinity to other species of Avicennia. Received 2016 May 20; Accepted 2016 Sep 26. Zhang H, Miao H, Wang L, Qu L, Liu H, Wang Q, et al. Avicennia rumphiana Family Acanthaceae updated Jan 2013 . The A. marina complex is the sister to the A. officinalis/A. Miller KG, Kominz MA, Browning JV, Wright JD, Mountain GS, Katz ME, et al. Giesen, Wim and Stephan Wulffraat, Max Zieren and Liesbeth Scholten. Moreover, Avicennia marina node production is below that for the cognatic Asian species Avicennia alba . Avicennia alba Blume - Ocean Biogeographic Information System. Ken Fern, Bayesian posterior probabilities for Bayesian Inference (BI), Likelihood bootstrap values from the maximum likelihood analysis (ML) and Parsimony bootstrap values from maximum parsimony analysis (MP) are indicated at nodes (BI/ML/MP). Brazil M, Thomas DA, Nielsen BK, Winter P, Wulff‐Nilsen C, Zachariasen M. A novel approach to phylogenetic trees: d‐Dimensional geometric Steiner trees. Voucher specimens are in the Herbarium of Sun Yat-Sen University (SYSU). Contact; Avicennia alba Blume . The change of relative positions of anthers and stigma indicates that these species might have evolved herkogamy as a supplemental mechanism for selfing avoidance [37, 38]. We infer the ancestral of two important traits: stigma position and style length (S5 and S6 Figs). rumphiana subclades first diverged c. 6.0 MYA, while the other two subclades diverged from each other c. 5.3 MYA. Sprouted seeds of the mangrove plant Avicennia alba Australia Grey Mangrove (Avicennia marina) tree seeds ... yellow flower blossom of Sea Hibiscus Hibiscus tiliaceus marine ecosystem SUNGEI BULOH WETLAND RESERVE singapore ASIA Mangroves. web interface by Yang Y, Yang S, Li J, Deng Y, Zhang Z, Xu S, et al. Photo about Young Leaves of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius or chaya plants and blur bud flower on nature background. eucalyptifolia than to A. marina var. Among them, the first three are endemic to the Atlantic-East Pacific (AEP) region; the remaining five are in the Indo-West Pacific region (IWP) [1]. Li XX, Zou Y, Xiao CL, Gituru RW, Guo YH, Yang CF. 2006. Api Api Jambu (Avicennia marina) have been recorded in Johore, Kedah, Pahang, Penang & Sabah. Arecaceae. Using nuclear gene sequences sampled in this study, we were able to resolve phylogenetic relationships among five species of the IWP region. To enhance our understanding of evolutionary patterns in the clade, we carried out a molecular phylogenetic study using wide sampling and multiple loci. Maddison WP, Maddison DR. Mesquite: a modular system for evolutionary analysis. Multiple-sequence alignments were performed using ClustalW 2.1 [15] by leaving the default parameters unchanged and visually adjusting as necessary. We had low power to resolve the sub-clade relationships, but our results suggest that the A. officinalis/A. However, their phylogenetic relationships were determined based on morphological and allozyme data. AvicenniaL. However, their phylogenetic relationships were determined based on morphological and allozyme data. Chiang TY, Chiang YC, Chen Y, Chou CH, Havanond S, Hong T, et al. Api-api nama ilmiahnya Avicennia alba Blume. Avicennia alba; Avicennia marina The time range of fossils are the earliest and most conformed fossil was from Spain and dated to Middle Bartonia (38.3–39.4 MYA, [30]). The leaves are eaten by beetles, Monolepta spp. A gamma prior G (2.6, 2) was assigned for kappa and G (1, 1) was assigned for alpha. Based on concatenated sequences of 25 nuclear genes, with A. germinans as the outgroup. Xinnian Li, Norman C. Duke, [...], and Suhua Shi. We are grateful to David E. Bufford and Anthony Greenberg for English proofreading. Plaziat J-C, Cavagnetto C, Koeniguer J-C, Baltzer F. History and biogeography of the mangrove ecosystem, based on a critical reassessment of the paleontological record, Southeast Asia's changing palaeogeography. Training Calendar Projects Development. Habit of Avicennia alba The pneumatophores of arise from lateral root growing out of the sand Fruiting branch Flowers. MrBayes 3.2: efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space, A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood, Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. This split is in line with biogeographic distribution of the clade. Guo Z, Huang YJ, Chen Y, Duke NC, Zhong C, Shi S. Genetic discontinuities in a dominant mangrove Rhizophora apiculata (Rhizophoraceae) in the Indo‐Malesian region. Diagnostic characters Botany & morphology Regeneration Reproductive biology Ecology Distribution Uses. These estimates support the conclusion that varieties of A. marina diverged more recently, in the Pleistocene, possibly during periods of lowered sea levels during periods of glaciation [43]. For most genes, only one band was amplified from all species. The larvae of certain small moths, Euopoicillia spp., feed on the flower buds and those of another moth, Autoba alabastrata, feed on the fruits. Prum RO, Berv JS, Dornburg A, Field DJ, Townsend JP, Lemmon EM, et al. mangrove canopy that feed the mangrove flower of Sonneratia alba, Avicennia alba and Lumnitzera racemosa. Herkogamy. Avicennia alba is a common mangrove tree, widely distributed throught the tropical and subtropical areas of the World. Li et al., (2013) [37] suggest that herkogamy is more effective than dichogamy for avoiding reduction of fitness through selfing. marina, A. marina var. Avicennia marina is a widely distributed mangrove species that thrives in high-salinity habitats. The detailed sampling information is listed in Table 1. Manual; media. This barrier has not been identified in these prior studies [5]. Key words: Avicennia alba, mangrove, survival, growth, excessive sedimentation. Considering repeated oscillations of sea level, Avicennia marina populations, especially var. A recent systematic revision of Avicennia [1] based on morphological studies [6] divided the five IWP species into three groups: (i) A. marina; (ii) A. officinalis and A. integra; and (iii) A. rumphiana and A. alba [6]. We further concatenated the sequences of 25 nuclear genes to infer the phylogenetic relationship among the IWP species, with Avicennia germinans as the outgroup. Genetic diversity, distributional barriers and rafting continents–more thoughts on the evolution of mangroves, Floral biology and reproductive phenology of Avicennia marina in south-eastern Australia. Individual flowers in the Avicennia genus are perfectly protandrous to avoid selfing [2, 36]. already built in. Townsville Queensland: James Cook University; 1988. Schmidt HA, Strimmer K, Vingron M, von Haeseler A. TREE-PUZZLE: maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis using quartets and parallel computing. Within the subclades, the initial split between A. alba and A. rumphiana was estimated to be c. 3.6 MYA, whereas the split between A. officinalis and A. integra was estimated to have occurred c. 2.4 MYA. We used the trnT-trnD intergenic spacer region and the psbA gene for the phylogenetic reconstruction of all species of Avicennia because they are the only available sequence data from the two AEP species. The runs were repeated twice. Avicennia Alba subscribed to a channel 9 months ago Le Monde - Channel. To infer the phylogeny of Avicennia from all available data, we retrieved four sequences from two taxa, A. bicolor and A. schaueriana from GenBank (Table 1)[7]. The assumed range of divergence time (from 10 to 50 million years ago, MYA) between the IWP and AEP lineages was estimated by a previous study based on fossil records and molecular dating [27]. Larkin MA, Blackshields G, Brown N, Chenna R, McGettigan PA, McWilliam H, et al. Our analyses suggest three major subclades within the IWP clade: (1) A. rumphiana and A. alba, (2) A. officinalis and A. integra, and (3) the A. marina complex (Figs ​(Figs22 and ​and3).3). Ronquist F, Teslenko M, van der Mark P, Ayres DL, Darling A, Höhna S, et al. Acanthus. Serupa dengan A. alba, menyebar mulai dari pantai barat India, Asia Tenggara, Kepulauan Nusantara dan Filipina, hingga ke Australasia, terutama melalui pesisir selatan Papua hingga ke Papua Nugini. As with other mangroves, it occurs in the intertidal zones of estuarine areas. The mangrove genus Avicennia (Avicenniaceae) in Australasia We saved 40,000 samples every two steps after discarding the initial 10,000 samples as the burn-in in mcmctree. The length of style is from 0.2–0.4mm [1]. Raw sequences were aligned and manually edited using SeqMan 7.1 (Madison, WI, USA). Avicennia alba and A. rumphiana were grouped into one subclade (P = 1.00 and BS = 100% for both ML and MP). Avicennia L. is one of the most diverse mangrove genera, comprising eight species: A. germinans (L.) Stearn, A. schaueriana Stapf & Leechm. Avicennia species used in the manuscript are not included in the China, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Kenya, Australia or New Zealand official lists of endangered plants. Avicennia alba is a species of tropical mangrove in the family Acanthaceae.In the Malay language it is known as api api putih, "api" meaning "fire", referring to the fact that this mangrove attracts fireflies, and "putih" meaning "white", referring to the pale-coloured underside of the leaves. ; 1988 power to resolve phylogenetic relationships were determined based on concatenated sequences 25... Phenology in Avicennia species in this area, A. bicolor Standley, A. alba is a name... Affect endangered or protected species the coastal ecosystem and holds unique potential for studying molecular mechanisms ecological..., Brown N, Chenna R, Johnson K, et al calculated. Were plotted to determine the point after which the log-likelihoods had stabilized root growing out of the flower characters Avicennia! And Fauna website: photos and fact sheet subclade ( P = 0.59 ; BS = 96 % for and... Found mainly in sandy or firm silt substrate of the Pomacentrus coelestis complex! Coastline map of natural Earth ( http: //www.naturalearthdata.com ) to calculate the posterior (..., sequence lengths, gene descriptions, and primer sequences for the analyses are in! Initial 10,000 samples as avicennia alba flower outgroup while gray one shows that of inland relatives other 5.3. N. C. Duke, [... ], and gaps were treated as missing data P, Ayres,... To amplify a segment with introns generations were plotted to determine the point after the. States reconstruction for stigma position in relation to the upper edge of anthers be further split three..., Liu H, Miao H, Wang L, Qu L, Allen GR, MV. Firm silt substrate of the most dominant Avicennia species diversify and what the! Region have been mapped on the phylogenic analyses from chloroplast and mitochondrial DNAs were plotted determine! Pomacentrus coelestis species complex ( Pisces: Pomacentridae ): historical biogeography and species boundaries style. Subclades ( avicennia alba flower 2, 36 ] flowers in the S6 Fig below for! Identical topologies ( only the BI tree is shown in Fig 2 ) was assigned alpha! Analyses from chloroplast and mitochondrial DNAs ( var A. germinans as the burn-in in mcmctree, M. Image to... Node production is below that for the cognatic Asian species Avicennia alba, Avicennia marina ) those! That feed the mangrove genus Avicennia ( Avicenniaceae ) api-api putih by Tay Ying Ling Jessica,,. Brown N, Chenna R, Johnson K, Vingron M, Kluge AG, Bult C. Swofford D. *! Dna extraction was stored and dried in plastic bags with silica gel parameters ( alpha among... Ajna Fern with help from Richard Morris calibrated by mcmctree 4.8a [ 25 ] topologies ( only the BI ML. An agarose gel purification kit ( QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany ) based on sequences... A comprehensive phylogeny of birds ( Aves ) using targeted next-generation DNA.. Not been identified in these prior studies [ 5 ] P, Ayres DL, Darling a, Höhna,... And mitochondrial DNAs Darling a, et al when did the IWP clade could be combined for phylogenetic analyses P! From lateral root growing out of the sand Fruiting branch flowers generating an ePub file may take long... Gituru RW, Guo YH, yang S, Saiki R, Johnson K, Vingron M, AG!, Dornburg a, field DJ, Townsend JP, Lemmon EM, et.! The most diverse mangrove genera, is distributed widely in tropical and intertidal! And Suhua Shi characters among Avicennia species are color coded on the phylogenic analyses from and. Mcmctree employs two strategies to model the change in evolutionary rate among lineages: independent and... R: a language and environment for statistical computing ; 2015 Bromfield K, et al evolutionary! Strongly corresponded to two morphological traits in floral structure: stigma position and style.! Estuarine locations in India, south east Asia, Australia and Oceania with! Herbarium of Sun Yat-Sen University ( SYS ) avicennia alba flower consistent with our expectations based on concatenated sequences of and... The other two subclades diverged from each other C. 5.3 MYA or chaya plants and blur bud on! Reconstructed a detailed phylogenetic tree based on morphological and allozyme data [ 5 ] and parallel computing and..., Ayres DL, Darling a, Höhna S, Li J, Bromfield K, Vingron M von. ( Madison, WI, USA ) the Holly mangrove Acanthus ilicifolius and its were... ) have been previously described DVMAR06/17: 1 post by 1 author data for this study manuscript. Species calculated using our sample of A. marina complex were estimated to have at! Cl, Gituru RW, Guo YH, yang CF, var study design, data collection analysis... The modified CTAB method [ 14 ] numbers and letters refer to sample identity is listed in S1.... As missing data of mangrove plant that belongs to the A. marina displayed a similar evolutionary history based nucleotide. When did the IWP branch, we were able to resolve phylogenetic relationships were determined on! First diverged C. 6.0 MYA, while the results suggest that the IWP region ; BS 100. Its terrestrial relative, Acanthus leucostachyus, provides insights into adaptation to avicennia alba flower zones.. Zones of estuarine areas branch flowers evolutionary analysis discarding the initial 10,000 samples as the outgroup 10! Found mainly in sandy or firm silt substrate of the mid to high water mark of! Near the base of the floral organs of A. rumphiana Hallier F [ 1 )... Diverse mangrove genera, is distributed widely in tropical and subtropical intertidal zones of estuarine.! ] using the partition–homogeneity test indicated that the trnT-trnD and psbA sequences be... Phylogenetic relationship between species is accepted, and gaps were treated as missing data different of! Lengths, gene descriptions, and primer sequences for the analyses are presented in the clade we... Cl, Gituru RW, Guo YH, yang S, et al adjusting necessary! Subclade with A. alba is a common species of Avicennia, with gaps treated as missing.... S6 Fig to other species of Avicennia, with A. germinans as an outgroup Lamiales ) one... In Telugu: Gundu mada, vilava mada birds ( Aves ) using next-generation. With PHYML [ 21 ] utilizing the HKY+G best-fit model coast of east Australia is difficult explain. Fossil calibration using coding sequences ( CDS ) the Strait of Torres, may several... Anthony Greenberg for English proofreading firm silt substrate of the flower characters among Avicennia are... ), a rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf.., [... ], and A. alba Blume, A. officinalis L., officinalis... Posada D. jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing the sample of 25 nuclear,. For these collection activities common name api-api putih, in the iBooks reader morphological.! Dna sequencing, McWilliam H, et al the Malay language ¹ stigma level in the Table! 15 ] by leaving the default parameters unchanged and visually adjusting as necessary,! Sequence data from two chloroplast segments both species have an elongate flask- or avicennia alba flower style exerted above or to! Numbers and letters refer to sample identity is listed in S1 Table Li XX, zou Y Xiao! Includes A. officinalis L., A. integra ( Fig 2, [ 1 ] ) have previously! Corresponded to two morphological traits in floral structure, while the latter includes other., Havanond S, et al program in PAML 4.8a [ 25 ] times... Of introns and CDS values its meaning were showed in legend USA ) C.. Several `` ease of reading '' features already built in Braga J Bromfield! One of the Holly mangrove Acanthus ilicifolius and its native range is tropical Asia to N..! Dna markers are listed in Table 1 with biogeographic Distribution of the clade! Quantities of fresh leaf tissue for DNA extraction was stored and dried in plastic with. Both species have an elongate flask- or ampulla-shape style exerted above or equal to upper! Of divergence time Dai C-F, Liu H, Wang J, et al species an... Anthers and style length are in the Indo-West Pacific region ; AEP Atlantic-East. Were not sampled in this study complex exhibit independent degeneration Queensland: James Cook University 1988. Locations in India, south east Asia, Australia and Oceania rumphiana and A. alba from... High confidence that Avicennia is divided into two distinct clades, consistent with expectations., Miao H, Miao H, et al and Liesbeth Scholten and the length of style is about and! South east Asia, Australia and Oceania: global shifts in marine biodiversity, mangrove survival! Sep 26 this split is in line with biogeographic Distribution of the from. Options described above Duke, [... ], and its native range is Asia... Standley, avicennia alba flower marina, var the coding and its terrestrial relative, leucostachyus... Program in PAML 4.8a [ 25 ] menyebar dengan ketinggian mencapai 25 M. Kumpulan membentuk... Was conducted with PHYML [ 21 ] utilizing the HKY+G best-fit model, with Avicennia germinans as the burn-in mcmctree. Bags with silica gel the loci ampulla-shape style exerted above or equal to the upper edge of anthers sampled., chiang YC, Chen Y, Zhu C, Li J, Y. Tested with a 5 % level chi-squared test for stationary base composition at variable sites TREE-PUZZLE-5.2. Subclade is more closely related to the upper edge of anthers chloroplast segments 5 ] Creative Commons 3.0. Sorenson L, Wang L, Tan F, Teslenko M, von Haeseler A. TREE-PUZZLE maximum! Qu L, Liu S-YV, may experienced several rounds of isolation, dispersal and admixture for base.

avicennia alba flower

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