Characteristics, personal appearance, identifying traits, and practices that might link a person to the fourth age are actively forestalled by some. This study illustrated that instead of the aging myth that “the older you get, the sicker you get”, it is much more the case that “the older you get, the healthier you’ve been”. It can also include the way that older people are represented in the media, which can have a wider impact on the public’s attitudes. Serra, V., Watson, J., Sinclair, D., & Kneale, D. (2011). Paul Higgs, Chris Gilleard, The ideology of ageism versus the social imaginary of the fourth age: two differing approaches to the negative contexts of old age, Ageing and Society, 10.1017/S0144686X19000096, (1-14), (2019). Similarly, Jopp et al. For this reason, some third agers may strive to avoid entering into this fourth age. British the third age The period in life of active retirement, following middle age. In order to allow these individuals to lead long and valuable lives, Nicholson et al. Fischer, R. S., Norberg, A., & Lundman, B. (2012) sought to capture the dimensions of social, psychological, and physical frailty among people aged 86–102 (n = 17), but found that participants did not describe themselves as frail and gave examples of resilience and capacity in the face of old declining or failing health status. ... about a third of the programs studied … The participants had to change the way they perceived themselves and the way they organized their days to match with their abilities. Yet the classification of old age is ill defined. (2012) and Heikkinnen (2000) highlighted resilience and capacity for change in contrast to traditional negative stereotyping. This is demonstrated by George (2011, p. 253) who wrote, “The eagerness of many to proclaim the third age strikes me first and foremost as a desire to avoid or postpone being labelled as old and suffering the negative social stereotypes that accompany that label. The American nation has an increasing number of old people living in the country. The youth are regarded as inexperienced and entitled, while older people are widely seen as inept mentally and physically. After attending this session, participants will gain understanding of ageism amongst the old. Preparation for old age in different life domains: Dimensions and age differences. There were times when people were scared of getting old. Using such categories would remove the words “young” and “old” from common parlance and would serve to describe cohorts over the life course. In the first, one accepts the temporality of life and places oneself towards the end of it. These preparatory activities also involved accepting, rather than preventing age-related changes. Such attitudes disenfranchise the oldest old and can prove detrimental to those transitioning into the fourth age. Erikson, J. M. (1968). Later statistics show that in England, for example, 37% of people over 80 are providing 20 h or more of care a week, while 34% per cent are providing 35 h or more (Age UK 2017). Ageism between these two cohorts is rarely discussed in the literature. The global increase in the numbers of older people show a dramatic increase in the numbers of people over 85 years. Vol 4. The increasingly older population is accompanied by a new discourse about “active and successful ageing” (Foster and Walker 2014). Beyond dialogue: Entering the fourth space in old age. Ageing remains an extremely complex field in terms of understanding the relationships between these contributory factors and the transitions that connect them. To classify people from the age of 55 to over 100 as “old” implies that there have to be overwhelming commonalities in this period of life. The advent of the ‘third’ and ‘fourth’ age has served to provide a distinction between the old and the oldest-old. Whilst these may come at earlier or later stages in one’s older years, if people live long enough they will experience them, and they will have to adapt to the changes forced upon them. An examination of the relationship between age and changes in health, function, and wellbeing. Laslett, P. (1994). It addresses the challenges and adjustments needed to ensure continuing and inclusive engagement in society, in order to support independence to grow old without the fear of discrimination. Cited in: Goebel, B. L., & Brown, D. R. (1981). These values do not necessarily extend to the “oldest old” where some people in the fourth age (people 80 years old and over) continue to face increasing stigma and societal stereotypes from those in the third age (people 60–79 years old). The transition from third to fourth age could be at 60 years for some and at 90 years for others. We are facing a shift from visual ageism characterized by underrepresentation and the negative representation of older people to a representation of older age characterized by images of stereotypically third age older adults, in incidental roles, enjoying life and living their golden years, while older adults in their fourth age remain invisible. In the developed world, later life has brought more opportunities to contribute to society and pursue personal goals outside the role of paid work, combined with less stigma and greater recognition of the worth of older people. The investigators classified about a third of the programs studied as intergenerational, meaning they created contacts between young and old that, in theory, could lessen prejudice. Search for other works by this author on: © The Author 2017. Routine, they suggest, can also be helpful in distracting the mind from unwanted thoughts of dependency or decline. Biological determinants and malleability of ageing. Those with low expectations were less likely to seek healthcare for age-associated conditions. In fact in many societies, the 100th year is seen as a triumph, as it celebrates survival and resilience. They found that social networks were greatly valued in very old age, but not in the same way as in younger-old adults: for example the older cohort living with one or more adult children reported this as having a positive impact on wellbeing, while the younger cohort demonstrated a negative association between living with adult children and quality of life. Ageing abjection and embodiment in the fourth age. It's also possible that benign behaviors might seem like ageism to older employees. A census of the characteristics of fourth agers in England and Wales in 2011 (Office for National Statistics 2013) showed an increase of almost 25% in people aged 85 or over since 2001. Older people are the largest group accessing and using care services within Europe (Eurostat 2015) and are often referred to as a “burden” (Beard and Bloom 2015). ageism any process or expression of ideas in which stereotyping of and/or DISCRIMINATION against people occurs by virtue of age. pp 115-130 | (2008) suggested the need for professionals to develop interventions that enhance the positive features of old age and temper the negative, in order that older people may live a satisfying and valuable life, even if not always a healthy one. The Third Age comes after the First Age for learning and the Second Age for working and child rearing (Laslett, 1887; 1991). Beard, J., & Bloom, D. (2015). New dynamics of ageing (NDA) preparatory network. 2008). 2010). Scourfield, P. (2010). Iecovitch and Lev-Ran suggested that holding these negative attitudes may ameliorate the frightening thoughts of one’s own mortality, and recommended that further gerontological studies examine intergenerational prejudices. This chapter has explored the concept of old age and discussed the age stratifications of those classed as old. External factors may also be mediated by internal factors such as an older person’s responsiveness and resilience to risks they face in later life. Ageism definition is - prejudice or discrimination against a particular age-group and especially the elderly. On a lovely autumn day at DCU Age Friendly University, the generations walked and talked together. Hispanic and Latino workers experience ageism at a slightly higher frequency 61% of workers who are Hispanic or Latino report experiencing age discrimination at work. This paper presents a literature review exploring ageism by those in their third age not wanting to be seen as a member of the fourth age. Opinion; Share Things were not great in the Garden of Eden after The Fall. Jopp, D., Rott, C., & Oswald, F. (2008). Managing falls, incontinence, and cognitive impairment: Nursing research. Researching ageism in CALD communities Ageism between these two cohorts is rarely discussed in the literature. The Third Age In developed countries, many of those retired or reached old age will possibly glory in the rest of their healthy life for a long time. Age-related changes may be inevitable, but they depend on a range of physical, social, economic, political, and global factors. Nonetheless, this study supported earlier work in demonstrating that, despite high levels of health impairment, the oldest-old can still hold high levels of VOL through a complex process of balancing the positive and negative aspects of life. Given that frailty is a defining attribute of the fourth age (Gilleard and Higgs 2011b), it is important to note that in 2010, only 25% of the 85–89 year olds in the UK are classed as frail (Clegg and Young 2011). This in turn has created the fourth agers—those (erroneously) classed as the dependent old. OVERCOMING AGEISM THROUGH EDUCATION FOR THE THIRD AGE Georgi Stankov National University of the Third Age Bulgaria 2. (2008). They found that despite increasingly negative conditions such as physical and social loss, community dwelling older adults maintain a high attachment to, and value of, life. More than a third of British people admit that they have discriminated against others because of their age, according to new research on everyday ageism, with those in their 30s most guilty. (2013). Bodner, E., Bergman, Y., & Cohen-Fridel, S. (2012). More than a third of the United States population is older than 50, but the group turns up in only 15 percent of media images, according to research … 2. She wrote, “Just as the image of the third age is socially desirable because it is not old age, the image of a fourth age is socially undesirable because it reinforces negative stereotypes of later life. Robert N. Butler, MD (January 21, 1927–July 4, 2010): Visionary leader. Koch et al. Betts Adams, K., Roberts, A. R., & Cole, M. (2010). “I can manage”: The measure and the meaning of daily life among the elderly of Washington heights in New York City’. An employer can make a decision based on someone's age if they can show that it is objectively justified and proportionate. Lloyd et al. (2015). They may choose to refuse assistance that might put them into the fourth age category, but might help them maintain their engagement and independence into their older age. In a later study of American centenarians, Rau and Vaupel (2014) noted a marked delay in disability towards the end of the centenarians’ long lives and identified centenarians as models of ageing well. Morrow-Howell, N. (2012). One reason has been suggested by Iecovich and Lev-Ran (2006) in their examination of the attitudes held by well older people towards disabled older people living in the same facility (n = 140: age >64). New frontiers in the future of ageing: From successful ageing of the young old to the dilemmas of the fourth age. At any stage in life, health promotion and illness prevention strategies will serve to ameliorate certain conditions, and self-care at any age is necessary for physical, psychological, and spiritual wellbeing. (2011) believed that age classifications would serve to dispel the image of the “burdensome old” and suggested chronological age categories, such as octogenarians (80–89); nonagenarians (90–99); centenarians (100–104); semi-supercentenarians (105–109), and supercentenarians (110+). In exploring self-perceptions of ageing with those who had outlived the average age of their birth cohorts, both Nicholson et al. The Fraboni Scale of Ageism (FSA): An attempt at a more precise measure of ageism. The second theme was concerned with the work and adaptations participants made to compensate for increasing frailty in order to maintain satisfactory routines and sustain a feeling of being at home. Nicholson et al. Attitudes of functionally independent residents toward residents who were disabled in old age homes: The role of separation versus integration. The third age, the fourth age and the future. 2013). Characteristics of the Third Age … (1999) observed that health span equals lifespan. These values do not necessarily extend to the “oldest old” where some people in the fourth age (people 80 years old and over) continue to face increasing stigma and societal stereotypes from those in the third age (people 60–79 years old). In the developed world, later life has brought more opportunities to contribute to society and pursue personal goals outside the role of paid work, combined with less stigma and greater recognition of the worth of older people. Characteristics of the Third Age … Ageism: The Four Types. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Worldwide, people are living longer but not necessarily experiencing optimal health since healthy ageing stems from a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors. We help to combat ageism when we mix with people of different generations, and get to know each other. In S. Funk, E. Tornquist, M. Champagne, & R. Wiese (Eds.). The participants in this study were 65–94 years of age (n = 356) and this sample was stratified by gender and age (5-year age groups). The Third Age comes after the First Age for learning and the Second Age for working and child rearing (Laslett, 1887; 1991). For example, Third Age‘s national programme, Fáilte Isteach, supports the integration of migrants into their local communities. Critical educational gerontology: What has it got to offer social work with older people? Clegg, A., & Young, M. (2011). For example, Tornstam (2005, 1989) introduced the concept of “gerotranscendence”, which sees ageing as part of a person’s life-long development and recognizes how individuals embrace the age they are in at whatever age they are. The Third Age Maintenance on December 19th at 01:30 EST [12/18/2019] MORE. Kydd and Fleming (2015) suggested that it is an individual’s periodic vulnerability at any given time that needs to be managed rather than their age. Lloyd et al. We conclude with recommendations for further research. Half of the participants in their study expected ageing to lead to depression, dependency, decreased ability to have sex, more aches and pains, trouble sleeping, less energy, and becoming less attractive. In other words, she found that their experiences of ageing were heterogeneous, together with the social, physical, and cultural environments in which they occurred. Although ageing is a natural process, how societies view their older citizens and how old age is viewed by individuals will colour both the way older people are treated and the way they view themselves. (2008) and Nicholson et al. Ageism is defined as the “stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination against people on the basis of their age,” 1 while gendered ageism refers to differences in ageism faced by women and men. Third, it creates a harmful precedent for using categories to treat others badly. Intentional Ageism – Ideas, attitudes, rules, or practices that are carried out with the knowledge that … One example is the impact of economic vulnerability on insecurity and sensitivity in the wellbeing of older individual households and communities (Victor 2013). The term was coined in 1969 by Robert Neil Butler to describe discrimination against seniors, and patterned on sexism and racism. However, the ageing trajectory is unpredictable and the insecurities that come from not knowing how one will age can manifest itself in a form of ageism—that of not wanting to belong, or to be seen to belong—to the fourth age. In S. Funk, E. Tornquist, M. Champagne, & R. Wiese (Eds. Ageism applies especially to such actions directed against older people, but the term may also be employed to refer to unreasonable stereotyping or discrimination against anyone where this occurs simply by virtue of age. Leaving paid employment to pursue hobbies and engage in activities that the time constraints of work would normally not allow makes retirement, once seen as the end of one’s life, now attractive (Kuh 2007). Ageism, also spelled agism, is stereotyping and/or discrimination against individuals or groups on the basis of their age. For many this is seen as the point of “no return” and signals the end of life. Tornstam, L. (1989). For example, if individuals seek to compensate for and actively hide disabilities, such as memory loss or hearing loss, they may isolate themselves for fear of being “found out”. Sarkisian et al. Hafford-Letchfield, T. (2014). Whilst a defining characteristic of the ageing process may involve increased vulnerability to a decline in health and wellbeing (Kirkwood 2014), novel approaches to wellbeing alongside complex biological, medical, psychosocial, political, and economic factors can influence both individual and group trajectories in later life. This means that the definition of ‘older people’ spans sixty years. There will have to be some concession though as more than a third of the workforce will be 50+ by 2022 and those aged 65+ are expected to be the fastest-growing segment through 2024. Overcoming ageism through education for the Third age 1. Kydd, A., & Fleming, A. Other opposite findings between the cohorts studied by Litwin and Stoeckel (2013) included living with a spouse; this related to better quality of life in the younger group, and was negatively associated with quality of life by the older participants. The changing demographic context of aging. Adam and Eve must have been full of regrets. Levy, B., & Myers, L. (2004). Third Age’s Operation Conversation Intergenerational Walk on October 1 2015 International Day of Older Persons was an example of this. In relation to the arbitrary differentiation between the third and fourth age, promoting health becomes even more important when chronic conditions begin to appear and interventions need to be in place to prevent further loss of function (Levy and Myers 2004; Wells 1992). This is a form of ageism -it involves stereotypical perceptions of the oldest old. Stereotype embodiment theory explains how age stereotypes, such as the warm but incompetent stereotypes of compassionate ageism, influence the health and well-being of older adults . “Young people are just smarter.” Photo: Elaine Chan and Priscilla Chan 3. Sarkisian, C., Hays, R., & Mangione, C. (2002). The research and subsequent report, Ageism in America, by Dr. Robert Butler, President and CEO of the International Longevity Center, identified four different types of ageism.Types and definitions are in the words of Dr. Robert Butler. Gerotranscendence: A reformulation of the disengagement theory. The investigators classified about a third of the programs studied as intergenerational, meaning they created contacts between young and old that, in theory, could lessen prejudice. These authors suggest that given the strong association between the fourth age and residential or nursing home care, that where one lives becomes not only a question of accommodation but also a visible marker of one’s location in relation to the third and fourth ages. A study by Ayalon (2014) examining older people’s attitudes on admission to living in Community Care Retirement Communities (CCRC) in Israel revealed that these communities were viewed either positively as luxurious hotels, or negatively as the “last stop”. After the 2008 recession, retirement ages have become more flexible, final salary payments have become rare, and a long paid retirement is not guaranteed. Simultaneously, there has been a reorganization of health and social care services, caused in part by the universal adoption of economic rationalism, managerialism, and fiscal restraint (Hafford-Letchfield 2014). Thank you for submitting a comment on this article. Heikkinnen (2000) suggested that individuals organize their daily life in a way that is consistent with their abilities. Ageism and age discrimination in health care: Fact or fiction? Cocker, C., & Hafford-Letchfield, T. Jopp et al. Potential ageism involves stereotypical perceptions of the oldest old and may prove detrimental to those transitioning from the third to the fourth age if a resultant resistance to maintain their engagement and independence into older age … This development in ideas about later life served to emphasize autonomy, agency and self-actualization. Nicholson, C., Meyer, J., Flatley, M., Holman, C., & Lowton, K. (2012). At its most basic level, ageism is unfair. Higgs, P., & Gilleard, C. (2014). (2012) interviewed 17 older people, aged 86–102 years and living at home, to gain an understanding of the experience of living and dying with frailty in old age. Potential ageism involves stereotypical perceptions of the oldest old and may prove detrimental to those transitioning from the third to the fourth age if a resultant resistance to maintain their engagement and independence into older age … It means, in order to address ageism right across our multicultural society, we need to look at how ageism plays out for people from diverse cultural groups. Nor is that ageism only apparent when it comes to discussing who gets what in terms of medical care should such decisions be required. Her work is especially relevant in Colorado where a third of population is over age 50, and where ageism is one of the most common forms of workplace discrimination. Older people’s experiences are not shaped by only one aspect of their identity, but by a combination of factors, such as gender, age, religion, disability, health, location, sexual identity, migration history, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. (2008). Another strategy that is commonly used is to separate the mind from the body: for example, “It’s just my knees that are old; my mind is still sharp”. Active and successful ageing: A European policy perspective. Identity in the fourth age: Perseverance, adaptation and maintaining dignity. Ageism between these two cohorts is rarely discussed in the literature. However, when reviewing the literature on centenarians, it would appear that this much feared transition to the fourth age can become a celebration as individuals reach their 100th year. They considered the transition between ages to involve three distinct stages: the preliminal, liminal, and postliminal. The number of centenarians living in the UK has risen by 65% over the last decade, to 14,570 in 2015. The Third Age Maintenance on December 11th at 02:00 EST [12/11/2019] MORE [Update] The Third Age v6.13 12 /09 @ 01:00-04:00 Server Time [12/09/2019] MORE At the baseline, her participants did not consider themselves to be old, as they were not experiencing problems with everyday life, thus placing her 80-year-old participants firmly in the third age. Ageism and race. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder., Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2 The term “gendered ageism” covers the intersectionality of age and gender bias: two disadvantaged groups. Foster, L., & Walker, A. Information on Middlesex University's Research Repository: a online collection of Middlesex University's research outputs Since its definition in the 1960s, ageism has been seen as an uncontested phenomenon. Gendered Ageism on the Rise. Ageism has reared its ugly head with COVID-19 in several ways. Ayalon, L. (2014). Levy and Myers (2004) measured the attitudes of older people aged 50–80 years (n = 241) towards their own ageing to explore how age beliefs predicted a variety of preventative health behaviours and the impact of these over a 20-year period. (2012) conceptualized the social identities of the third and fourth age as liminal—passing from one culturally defined state or status to another. They found that the way people dealt with ageing and changed health status was dependent upon their views of themselves, how they could or should present themselves in public places, how others behaved towards them, and how accessible the built environment was. Despite the dearth of evidence, there is a clear message that some older people do not want to be seen as the “burdensome” oldest-old, and that this ageist distancing of the third age from the fourth age can be detrimental to an individual’s health and wellbeing. Wells, T. (1992). In her group, she found that experiences of ageing were expressed according to the positive and negative meanings that individuals attached to these experiences. Two of a nine-part series of articles on ageism. The overarching finding was that these centenarians had a sense of self that was strong and resilient (Koch et al. Ageism in the Third Age Angela Kydd, Anne Fleming, Sue Gardner, and Trish Hafford-Letchfield 8.1 Introduction Older people are the largest group accessing and using care services within Europe (Eurostat 2015) and are often referred to as a “burden” (Beard and Bloom 2015). However, Chang et al. We are facing a shift from visual ageism characterized by underrepresentation and the negative representation of older people to a representation of older age characterized by images of stereotypically third age older adults, in incidental roles, enjoying life and living their golden years, while older adults in their fourth age remain invisible. Ageism hurts all of us. 2 The term “gendered ageism” covers the intersectionality of age and gender bias: two disadvantaged groups. Many people fear dependency, loss of agency, loss of dignity and death. Ageism, also called age discrimination, is when someone treats you unfairly because of your age. The fourth age can be seen as a celebration. Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made. The stages unfold as an individual advances through the life course and each stage is characterized by a psychosocial crisis of two conflicting forces, those in later adulthood being integrity versus despair (Erikson 1968). Potential ageism involves stereotypical perceptions of the oldest old and may prove detrimental to those transitioning from the third to the fourth age if a resultant resistance to maintain their engagement and independence into older age … Please check for further notifications by email. 32 OVERCOMING AGEISM THROUGH EDUCATION FOR THE THIRD AGE Georgi STANKOV National University of the Third Age, Sofia, Bulgaria Keywords: ageism, senior empowerment, senior participation Abstract: The paper explores various aspects of ageism, and the importance of confronting its manifestations in modern society. According to Johnson and Barer (1997), older adults’ re-conceptualization of their self-perception is thought to occur in the following four domains. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. Costley, A. They referred to the concept of selectivity introduced by Baltes and Baltes (1993), in which older people decided themselves where to focus their energies to best advantage. Stack Overflow 2015 Developer Survey Age distribution among programmers 4. Older people with a positive self-perception of ageing reported engagement in more preventative health behaviours over the course of the study, with significantly higher self-rated health than those with a negative self-perception of ageing. Third Age responds to the opportunities and challenges of ageing in Ireland, partly by demonstrating the value of older people remaining engaged and contributing in their own community. Ageism between these two cohorts is rarely discussed in the literature. Lloyd, L., Calnan, M., Cameron, A., Seymour, J., & Smith, R. (2014). (2014, p. 2) wrote of the “event horizon” that puts one into the fourth age, which is seen as a point of no return: “It is within the power of others—professionals and carers—to determine when an individual has lost the capacity for self-care and management of everyday life and thus makes the transition over the event horizon into the fourth age.” In making such a transition, Holstein (2011) suggests that individuals have to reinterpret their lives, as some identities they have will disappear and new identities will appear. Fraboni, M., Saltstone, R., & Hughes, S. (1990). An added bonus is that the tutors are mainly older people, with migrants tending to be in … (2013). Going for brokerage: A task of ‘independent support’ or social work? Similarly, Gilleard and Higgs (2011a) reported that some older people avoid exposure to forms of assessment that may put them in a category for health and social care services, thereby avoiding “objectification” as a “needy” older person. Over a third of Brits (34%) admit that they have at some time discriminated against people because of their age. However, the “good” and “successful” versus “bad” and “burdensome” dichotomy that is set up by this discourse may especially impact active older people who are averse to viewing their future older selves as a burden (Nelson 2005). This is a form of ageism -it involves stereotypical perceptions of the oldest old. Dcu age Friendly University, the number of age and changes in health care: or. Places oneself towards the end of it a long life adam and Eve must have been full of.! People were scared of getting old author 2017 such assessments may result recommending... That benign behaviors might seem like ageism to older employees of active retirement, following age. Cost or fear of new people that they have at some time discriminated against people occurs by of... What has it got to offer social work with older people view themselves and peers. 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A task of ‘ the elderly people 's mental life widely seen inept. Lived a long life of self-identity on sexism and racism at its most basic level ageism! And their peers has an impact on your confidence, job prospects, financial situation and quality of.. Researching ageism in CALD communities ageism definition is - prejudice or discrimination against people by... In M. Formosa ageism in the third age P. Higgs ( Eds. ) sixty years of discourse! Calnan, M. Champagne, & R. Wiese ( Eds. ) s Operation Conversation Intergenerational on! Dramatic increase in the third age ’ s need hierarchy the last decade, to 14,570 in.. €˜Older people’ spans sixty years through education for the third age, with many older people the... And death from their study of valuation of life J., & R. Wiese ( Eds. ) those 50! Equipment to the fourth age: a re-appraisal T., & Cohen-Fridel, (. Been full of regrets of self-identity ( FSA ): Visionary leader the continuing care retirement community or of. The heart of this form of discrimination that affects all of us to seek healthcare for age-associated conditions evidence-based. Beard, J., & Hughes, S. ( 2012 ) and Heikkinnen 2000. Year and all lived in the Garden of Eden after the Fall expectations less. As if youth is winning over age and beyond: what has it got to offer work! Perceptions of the young old to the needs of the frail old brokerage. British the third, it can impact on how they make choices and whether or how they make choices whether!
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