These Articles are Written by the Publishers of The Amazing Bible Timeline with World History . The first, Sextus Tigidius Perennis, Commodus put to death after becoming convinced he was conspiring against him. Jay. Information about the Roman emperor Commodus. Commodus was an emperor that spent too much money on Gladitoral Games. … Gibbon claimed that the period of their rule was the happiest period in human existence.The Roman Empire was largely peaceful and well-governed. Commodus was one of a set of twins that Faustina gave birth to, being the one to survive. However, even these favorites were not safe from his fury. Lucius Aurelius Commodus, born 161 A.D., was appointed co-emperor by his father Marcus Aurelius in 177 A.D. when he was just 16 years old. “Commodus was a greater curse to the Romans than any pestilence or any crime” and the city had descended into bankruptcy and chaos. Contemporary Roman writer Cassius Dio describes the young heir as “rather simple-minded,” but he ruled agreeably with his father and joined Marcus Aurelius in the Marcomannic Wars against the Germanic tribes along the Danube, which the emperor had been waging for several years. Methuen, 1898. Wife of M. Annius Verus: Giacosa (1977), p. 10. Gibbon p. 107 "*1 Commodus killed a camelopardalis or giraffe ... the most useless of the quadrupeds". Pertinax succeeded him but only for about three months. Lucius Aurelius Commodus, born 161 A.D., was appointed co-emperor by his father Marcus Aurelius in 177 A.D. when he was just 16 years old. We lived and worked in Rome for four years and spent a lot of time learning about the art, architecture, culture and history. Every illness was treated to ensure he remained strong and hale. English translation) UCLA Press, Berkeley CA (1961), 1.15.1-9, Dio (Cassius. According to Dio Cassius, Perennis, though ruthless and ambitious, was not personally corrupt and generally administered the state well.[16]. [19], Cassius Dio, a first-hand witness, describes him as "not naturally wicked but, on the contrary, as guileless as any man that ever lived. After the death of Commodus, Pertinax became emperor. One such notable event was the attempted extermination of the house of the Quinctilii. Marcus Aurelius was the first emperor since Vespasian to have a legitimate biological son and, though he himself was the fifth in the line of the so-called Five Good Emperors, each of whom had adopted his successor, it seems to have been his firm intention that Commodus should be his heir. Unlike the preceding Emperors Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, he seems to have had little interest in the business of administration and tended throughout his reign to leave the practical running of the state to a succession of favourites, beginning with Saoterus, a freedman from Nicomedia who had become his chamberlain. By 192 A.D., the Roman people had had enough. [12] His reduction of the denarius during his rule was the largest since the empire's first devaluation during Nero's reign. At first, events after the emperor’s death went exactly according to plan. [5] He was the son of the reigning emperor, Marcus Aurelius, and Aurelius's first cousin, Faustina the Younger, the youngest daughter of Emperor Antoninus Pius, who had died only a few months before. He knew that he would be an Emperor from childhood. Among those conspiring against him: his older sister Lucilla. Whatever its roots, the conspiracy failed and the incident aroused an insane paranoia in Commodus, who began seeing plots and treachery everywhere. Caesar P. Helvius Pertinax Augustus) 193: Didius Julianus (Imp. Commodus was a cruel man. Historia Augusta. Wikimedia CommonsA bust of Roman Emperor Commodus, styled as if he were a reincarnation of Hercules, which is precisely what he believed himself to be. His recorded actions do tend to show a rejection of his father's policies, his father's advisers, and especially his father's austere lifestyle, and an alienation from the surviving members of his family. After Maximus killed Commodus in the Colloseum, the emperor was chosen from the winner of a gladiator fight between two emperor wannabes. Gaius / Caligula (C. Caesar Augustus Germanicus) Commodus was a bad emperor, but the time itself was hard. [16], Priscus refused to accept their acclamations, and Perennis had all the legionary legates in Britain cashiered. In fact, the rule of Commodus might have gone down as quite unremarkable in the history of Rome were it not for one unfortunate incident. His reign is commonly considered to mark the end of the golden period of peace in the history of the Roman Empire known as the Pax Romana. Wikimedia CommonsAn illustration of the murder of Commmodus. In 187, one of the leaders of the deserters, Maternus, came from Gaul intending to assassinate Commodus at the Festival of the Great Goddess in March, but he was betrayed and executed. The accession of the 19 year old Commodus upon the death of his father Marcus Aurelius on March 17, AD 180 is often considered a catalyst that sparked the initial decline of the Roman Empire. As an emperor, Commodus soon became a disappointment to Marcus Aurelius. On November 27, 176, Aurelius promoted 15-year old Commodus to the rank of Imperator, which some say is a role similar to commander. Perhaps seeing this as an opportunity, early in 192 Commodus, declaring himself the new Romulus, ritually re-founded Rome, renaming the city Colonia Lucia Annia Commodiana. One would be the growing in size and power of the Eurasian steppe dwellers like the Huns. In April 175, Avidius Cassius, Governor of Syria, declared himself Emperor following rumours that Marcus Aurelius had died. Having been accepted as Emperor by Syria, Judea and Egypt, Cassius carried on his rebellion even after it had become obvious that Marcus was still alive. The emperor Titus Flavian completed the Colosseum and endeared himself to the public with his generosity only to have his good works undone by his brother Domitian, who was assassinated by his own court. He was made the youngest consul in Roman history in 177 and elevated to co-augustus with his father, having been given the title imperator in 176. 1, eingeleitet und übersetzt von E. Hohl, bearbeitet und übersetzt von E. Merten (1976) 138. On 20 January 175, Commodus entered the College of Pontiffs, the starting point of a career in public life. Unrest around the empire increased, with large numbers of army deserters causing trouble in Gaul and Germany. I mean, he ruled as emperor for 12 years before being assassinated, and he co-ruled with Marcus Aurelius for three years before that. Commodus vollständiger Name wechselte mehrmals; geboren wurde er als Lucius Aurelius Commodus, seit der Erhebung zum Mitkaiser 177 hieß er Imperator Caesar Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus Augustus, bei der Übernahme der Alleinherrschaft im März 180 nahm er den Namen Antoninus und im Oktober desselben Jahres auch das Pränomen seines verstorbenen Vaters Mark Aurel an. According to Cassius Dio, Commodus once killed 100 lions in a single day. (MARCUS AURELIUS COMMODUS ANTONINUS).. Roman Emperor, born 161; died at Rome, 31 December, 192.He was the son of Marcus Aurelius and Anna Faustina, and was the first among the Roman emperors to enjoy the distinction of being born in the purple.. His reign, 180-193, was the turning-point in the greatness of Rome.Some historians have attempted to exonerate Commodus from the charge of … The Emperor Commodus Leaving the Arena at the Head of the Gladiators (detail) by Edwin Howland Blashfield (1848–1936), Hermitage Museum and Gardens, Norfolk, Virginia. Updated October 06, 2019 Commodus (August 31, 161–December 31, 192 CE) was the emperor of Rome between 180–192 CE. It was presumably there that, on 15 October 172, he was given the victory title Germanicus, in the presence of the army. Now at the zenith of his power, Cleander continued to sell public offices as his private business. He thought of himself as the reincarnation of Hercules, frequently emulating the legendary hero's feats by appearing in the arena to fight a variety of wild animals. b. freeing slaves who would support him. Cleander fled to Commodus, who was at Laurentum in the house of the Quinctilii, for protection, but the mob followed him calling for his head. Usapyon is the third mascot for the Yo-kai Watch franchise as well as the mascot for Yo-kai Watch Blasters: Moon Rabbit Crew. Commodus, in full Caesar Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus, original name (until 180 ce) Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus, (born August 31, 161 ce, Lanuvium, Latium [now Lanuvio, Italy]—died December 31, 192), Roman emperor from 177 to 192 (sole emperor after 180). The next emperor was Publius Hevlius Pertinax, Rome’s city prefect. Harvard University Press, 1961, 73.10.3, Dio Cassius 73.20.3, Loeb edition translated E. Cary, Gibbon p.. 106 "disgorged at once a hundred lions; a hundred darts". Commodus subsequently accompanied his father on a lengthy trip to the Eastern provinces, during which he visited Antioch. Commodus was awarded the title of Augustus in 177 by Aurelius, making him co-emperor of Rome. The historian Herodian, a contemporary, described Commodus as an extremely handsome man. 5. Disdaining the more philosophic inclinations of his father, Commodus was extremely proud of his physical prowess. 8 years ago. Commodus (31 August 161-31 December 192) was the Emperor of the Roman Empire from 180 to 192, succeeding Marcus Aurelius and preceding Pertinax.. Marcus Aurelius did not try to oust his son as emperor. Roman History. They then returned to Rome in the autumn of 176. An illustration of the murder of Commmodus. Papirius Dionysius was executed, too. The era of the ‘Five Good Emperors’ is often seen as the high point of Rome and Roman civilization. Condianus and Maximus were executed on the pretext that, while they were not implicated in any plots, their wealth and talent would make them unhappy with the current state of affairs. However, when they were presented with the promise of 12,000 sesterces per soldier, they got on board. The title Felix is first used by the emperor Commodus, and is used in the titles of almost all successive emperors to the fifth century. Commodus was appointed as a co-ruler, at the age of 16, after fighting alongside his father and emperor, Marcus Aurelius, during the ‘Marcomannic Wars.’ In one final act of madness, Commodus ordered the head of the Colossus of Nero to be replaced with his own and added the inscription “the only left-handed fighter to conquer twelve times (as I recall the number) one thousand men.”. Lucius Aurelius Commodus was born to the philosopher/king and Faustina the Younger at Lanuvium, a city fourteen miles southeast of Rome on August 31, 161 CE. He even had the temerity to name the months of the year after himself. fascinating facts from the entirety of ancient history. One Roman who lived through Commodus’s reign complained that he had brought Rome “from a … Er hieß nun Imperator Caesar Mar… Husband of Ceionia Fabia: Levick (2014), p. 164. Julia Balbilla a possible lover of Sabina: A. R. Birley (1997). The economy was generally buoyant, and long-distance trade flourished. Husband of Rupilia Faustina: Levick (2014), p. 163. The assassination attempt marked a turning point in Commodus’ reign, for “once [he had] tasted human blood, he became incapable of pity or remorse.” He began executing people without regard for rank, wealth, or sex. Updated October 06, 2019. Reign. 1 Biography 2 What … In 182 A.D., Commodus’ sister Lucilla organized an attempt on her brother’s life. Far from celebrating his descent from Marcus Aurelius, the actual source of his power, he stressed his own personal uniqueness as the bringer of a new order, seeking to re-cast the empire in his own image. But things took a wrong turn. Foreign invaders rarely breached the frontiers of t… Commodus: emperor of the Roman world (r. 180-192). Commodus' first bad move took place immediately following his father's death. The first attempt used poisoned meat, but Commodus vomited it up. Commodus was a Roman emperor during the early years of the first millennium. Statues of Commodus were demolished. Commodus's sister ruled briefly after Commodus was killed by Maximus. Commodus didn’t really bother with the duties of being an … Italics indicates a junior co-emperor, while underlining indicates a usurper. The legions were renamed Commodianae, the fleet which imported grain from Africa was termed Alexandria Commodiana Togata, the Senate was entitled the Commodian Fortunate Senate, his palace and the Roman people themselves were all given the name Commodianus, and the day on which these reforms were decreed was to be called Dies Commodianus. The Emperor and his son then traveled to Athens, where they were initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries. Fight for Glory At the urging of his mistress Marcia, Commodus had Cleander beheaded and his son killed. In 186 he further reduced the purity and silver weight to 74 percent and 2.22 grams respectively, being 108 to the Roman pound. The title suggests that Commodus was present at his father's victory over the Marcomanni. Commodus as Hercules. He was portrayed by Joaquin Phoenix, who would later portray Arthur Fleck in Joker. Who was Early Rome ruled by the? Biography. Commodus became co-ruler with his … Despite his education, he did not inherit any of his father’s work. Commodus was succeeded by Pertinax, whose reign was short lived, being the first to fall victim to the Year of the Five Emperors. And in AD 177, after the revolt of Cassius, Marcus Aurelius made him Augustus and thereby joint emperor. A small group of conspirators, including the emperor’s chamberlain and mistress, Marcia, decided to kill him. One of the two praetorian prefects, Publius Tarrutenius Paternus, had actually been involved in the conspiracy but his involvement was not discovered until later on, and in the aftermath, he and his colleague, Sextus Tigidius Perennis, were able to arrange for the murder of Saoterus, the hated chamberlain. Commodus defeats his sister's coup but withdraws from governing, allowing others to amass power while he engages in an affair and banishes his wife. The provinces had become more urbanized and Romanized, and a host of religions and minorities generally lived in peaceful harmony. "Exsuperatorius" (the supreme) was a title given to Jupiter, and "Amazonius" identified him again with Hercules. Salvius and Paternus were executed along with a number of other prominent consulars and senators. While the previous governor was fair and the Britons lived in peace, Commodus ruled as an evil tyrant, directly resulting in a massive rebellion led by King Oswald and his daughter Boudica. Commodus was born on 31 August AD 161 in Lanuvium, near Rome. The latter died in 169 having failed to recover fr… On 31 December, Marcia poisoned Commodus' food but he vomited up the poison, so the conspirators sent his wrestling partner Narcissus to strangle him in his bath. – Historia Augusta Bd. His twin brother, Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antonius, died at age four. Commodus (August 31, 161–December 31, 192 CE) was the emperor of Rome between 180–192 CE. Commodus was born on 31 August 161, the son of Marcus Aurelius.He was a member of the pagan Roman House of Aurelius.Commodus was ambitious, brave (although not on the battlefield), and loyal … At some pont before the events of Ryse, he was appointed by his father as governor of Britannia. Unfortunately Pertinax miscalculated when he tried to reign in the Praetorian Guard. Muller Edition 1.15.7, Echols, Edward C. "Herodian of Antioch's History of the Roman Empire." But the city's inhabitants may have found themselves in a potentially dangerous predicament when Emperor Commodus was assassinated in A.D. 192. Commodus had an elder twin brother, Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus, who died in 165. Source(s): College. The consensus was that it was below his office to participate as a gladiator. Commodus' death marked the end of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty. ), and Earnest Cary. Commodus was born on 31 August 161, the son of Marcus Aurelius.He was a member of the pagan Roman House of Aurelius.Commodus was ambitious, brave (although not on the battlefield), and loyal … Herodian's Roman History F.L. Gina Dimuro is a New York-based writer and translator. One of the ways he paid for his donatives (imperial handouts) and mass entertainments was to tax the senatorial order, and on many inscriptions, the traditional order of the two nominal powers of the state, the Senate and People (Senatus Populusque Romanus) is provocatively reversed (Populus Senatusque...). Emperor. At 29, he took over more of the reins of power, though he continued to rule through a cabal consisting of Marcia, his new chamberlain Eclectus, and the new praetorian prefect Quintus Aemilius Laetus. In November 192, Commodus held Plebeian Games, in which he shot hundreds of animals with arrows and javelins every morning, and fought as a gladiator every afternoon, winning all the fights. Usapyon (Japanese: USA (うさ)ピョン, USApyon) is a Rank B, Ice-attribute 'Merican Yo-kai of the Shady tribe and the Uwanosora tribe starting in Yo-kai Watch 4. He was an elderly senator who was chosen by the senate as emperor. The emperor now changed his name to Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus. During 191, the city of Rome was extensively damaged by a fire that raged for several days, during which many public buildings including the Temple of Pax, the Temple of Vesta, and parts of the imperial palace were destroyed. As the son of emperor Marcus Aurelius, Commodus was the first Roman emperor to have been "born in the purple," and thus dynastically selected to be his successor. Contemporary Roman writer Cassius Dio describes the young heir as “rather simple-minded,” but he ruled agreeably with his father and joined Marcus Aurelius in the Marcomannic Wars against the Germanic tribes along the Danube, which the emperor had been waging for several year… Commodus, Emperor of Rome. In December, he announced his intention to inaugurate the year 193 as both consul and gladiator on 1 January. Reihe 4, Bd. Innumerable statues around the empire were set up portraying him in the guise of Hercules, reinforcing the image of him as a demigod, a physical giant, a protector, and a warrior who fought against men and beasts (see "Commodus and Hercules" and "Commodus the Gladiator" below). Heinz, W. (1986). Commodus in 180 AD. Marcus Aurelius died there on 17 March 180, leaving the 18-year-old Commodus sole emperor. In the arena, Commodus' opponents always submitted to the emperor; as a result he never lost. [24] On his father's death in 180, Commodus changed this to Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Commodus, before changing back to his birth name in 191.[1]. From an early age he displayed signs of megalomania and he heeded no-one apart from his father. He ruled as junior co-e… Commodus (Lucius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus, 31 August 161 – 31 December 192) was Roman Emperor from 180 to 192. Quadratus and Quintianus were executed. Aurelius’ physician, Galen, was tasked with looking after Commodus to ensure that he stayed healthy and well. Perennis took over the reins of government and Commodus found a new chamberlain and favourite in Cleander, a Phrygian freedman who had married one of the emperor's mistresses, Demostratia. Lucilla was over ten years his senior and held the rank of Augusta as the widow of her first husband, Lucius Verus. Silver Spoon in Mouth Born on August 31, 161 AD, to Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and his wife Faustina, Commodus was the apple of his father’s eye. After the assassination of Roman Emperor Commodus on December 31, 192 CE, the empire ’s throne was left vacant. Ulpius Marcellus was replaced as governor of Britain by Pertinax; brought to Rome and tried for treason, Marcellus narrowly escaped death. Rome is Burning 45m. He also had the head of the Colossus of Nero adjacent to the Colosseum replaced with his own portrait, gave it a club, and placed a bronze lion at its feet to make it look like Hercules Romanus, and added an inscription boasting of being "the only left-handed fighter to conquer twelve times one thousand men".[18]. The second, the freeman Cleander, he allowed to be torn apart by a mob who were outraged at the freeman’s abuses. He also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180. Jay. Wife of M. Annius Libo: Levick (2014), p. 163. From what I've read, Commodus wasn't a great emperor, but he certainly wasn't as awful as he's depicted in films like "Fall of the Roman Empire" or "Gladiator." Lv 7. Commodus was inaugurated in 183 as consul with Aufidius Victorinus for a colleague and assumed the title Pius. During Yo-kai Watch 3 he met and became the partner of Hailey Anne Thomas. Commodus (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus; [1] 31 August 161 – 31 December 192), was Roman Emperor from 180 to 192. Lucilla was exiled to Capri and later killed. 0 2. Had Commodus been emperor from AD 177, no-one doubted that true power remained in the hands of his father. The prince of Rome, Commodus is the son of Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Commodus also had a passion for gladiatorial combat, which he took so far as to take to the arena himself, dressed as a secutor. [28] The Romans found Commodus' gladiatorial combats to be scandalous and disgraceful. Commodus was the first Emperor born into the ‘purple’. Aurelius constantly gives his son lectures on duty and morality, he was as stern and powerful as Zeus. [17], Thus, he presented himself as the fountainhead of the Empire, Roman life, and religion. He accompanied his father, Marcus, during the Marcomannic Wars in 172 and on a tour of the Eastern provinces in 176. Commodus ruled with chaos and left chaos in his wake. Commodus' reign was filled with bad decisions, causing the people of Rome to suffer. “So superlatively mad had the abandoned wretch become” that he renamed Rome Colonia Commodiana (the Colony of Commodus) and changed the names of the months to each reflect one of the many epithets he had bestowed upon himself. Commodus: The True Story Of The Mad Roman Emperor Immortalized In ‘Gladiator’, Commodus exposes Lucilla’s plot in this scene from, Commodus is confronted by Maximus in the arena in this scene from. Names: 31 Augustus 161: Lucius Aurelius Commodus; 12 October 166: Lucius Aurelius Commodus Caesar; 172: Lucius Aurelius Commodus Caesar Germanicus; 175: Lucius Aurelius Commodus Caesar Germanicus Sarmaticus; June 177: Imperator Caesar Lucius Aurelius Commodus Augustus; 17 March 180: Marcus Aurelius Commodus … Just as Marcus Aurelius was ready to revise his succession, Commodus strangled Aurelius, killing him and usurping the throne by convincing everyone that Aurelius had died of natural causes. Commodus had an elder twin brother, Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus, who died in 165. His name changed throughout his reign; see changes of name for earlier and later forms. [6][7] The latter died in 169 having failed to recover from an operation, which left Commodus as Marcus Aurelius's sole surviving son. On 12 October 166, Commodus was made Caesar together with his younger brother, Marcus Annius Verus. 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