For commercial applications, it may be necessary to erect and install an external fuel tank. How do wind turbines work? Smaller engines usually operate on gasoline while larger engines run on diesel, liquid propane, propane gas, or natural gas. It is important to understand that a generator does not actually ‘create’ electrical energy. This law states that a wire conductor that creates movement through a magnetic field creates an electric current, and that the strength of the current is equal to the rate of change through the magnetic field. A generator is a device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Follow the links to apply your knowledge of how a turbine generator works using each of these forces: Wind Energy , Solar Energy , Hydro Energy , Steam Energy . • Durability IMMEDIATE AVAILABILITY! It is essential to check the coolant levels of the generator on a daily basis. But in 1913, Tesla received a patent for what he described as his most important invention. The steart function of a generator is battery-operated. As the output of the generator increases, the voltage regulator produces less DC current. The rotor generates a moving magnetic field around the stator, which induces a voltage difference between the windings of the stator. (b) Engine gauges – Different gauges indicate important parameters such as oil pressure, temperature of coolant, battery voltage, engine rotation speed, and duration of operation. The alternator, also known as the ‘genhead’, is the part of the generator that produces the electrical output from the mechanical input supplied by the engine. The inverter circuit of this generator can convert any amount of DC power be it 20 volts or 100 volts to 120-volt 60Hz AC power. In the case of small generator units, the fuel tank is a part of the generator’s skid base or is mounted on top of the generator frame. OHV engines have several advantages over other engines such as: • Compact design The generator should be placed in an open and ventilated area that has adequate supply of fresh air. A number of high power thyristors rectify the AC current to produce a DC current which feeds to the rotor through slip rings. The disturbance of the downstream wind current is why regular turbines need to be installed far from each other. This process makes use of a natural resource (water) and does not involve the combustion of any fossil fuels. Each different force will eventually create a rotating force within the turbine generator. The fuel pump is typically electrically operated. Inverter generators serve a number of applications for our portable power customers including, RV power, camping, entertainment sound sets, sporting event vendors, healthcare and elderly care backup operations, mobile restaurants, mobile service providers, sensitive construction environments, and … This is the user interface of the generator and contains provisions for electrical outlets and controls. Tidal power can work in different ways depending on the type of system in use. The engine can use either, gas, diesel or natural gas (propane) as a source of fuel. Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydropower. (c) Brushless Design – An alternator that does not use brushes requires less maintenance and also produces cleaner power. You must ensure that the exhaust system of your generator is not connected to that of any other equipment. This mechanism can be understood by considering the generator to be analogous to a water pump, which causes the flow of water but does not actually ‘create’ the water flowing through it. The energy can then be transferred to a generator where electricity is produced. Generators are available in different electrical and physical configurations for use in different applications. (f) Fuel Injector – This atomizes the liquid fuel and sprays the required amount of fuel into the combustion chamber of the engine. Be the first to hear about the latest green energy news, technology and offers. Find out how much Solar Power will cost to setup and how much you can save! In the following sections, we will look at how a generator functions, the main components of a generator, and how a generator operates as a secondary source of electrical power in residential and industrial applications. It is essential to have a cooling and ventilation system to withdraw heat produced in the process. The exciter windings are connected to units known as rotating rectifiers. (You'll learn more about how the generator works later.) Common features of the fuel system include the following: An electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy obtained from an external source into electrical energy as the output. You should check the level of lubricating oil every 8 hours of generator operation. How a generator works is easy to understand if you can understand each step below. As stated before, the mechanical energy needed to make the generator work can come from several different forces. The mechanism is described below against each component that plays a part in the cyclical process of voltage regulation. The picture below shows the same generator from a different point of view, as if you were looking lengthwise, down through the circular top of the turbine cylinder. It followed earlier attempts at making an air engine but was probably the first put to practical use when, in 1818, an engine built by Stirling was employed pumping water in a quarry. • User-friendly in operations Hydrogen is sometimes used as a coolant for the stator windings of large generator units since it is more efficient at absorbing heat than other coolants. Exhaust pipes are usually made of cast iron, wrought iron, or steel. Faraday discovered that the above flow of electric charges could be induced by moving an electrical conductor, such as a wire that contains electric charges, in a magnetic field. It contains an assembly of stationary and moving parts encased in a housing. In a turbine generator, a moving fluid—water, steam, combustion gases, or air—pushes a series of blades mounted on a rotor shaft. Common sources used to supply a generator with mechanical energy are: The fuels used to supply these forces are: The generator pictured above is a small and cylindrical turbine generator with an outer casing made of steel. (d) Fuel pump – This transfers fuel from the main storage tank to the day tank. More easily seen from this view, the armature rotates within the generator, with each end moving opposite the other. I try to approach a Gas Turbo Generator (GTG) to better feel the subject. This produces the alternating current (AC) output of the generator. Continuous usage of the generator causes its various components to get heated up. Exhaust pipes are usually attached to the engine using flexible connectors to minimize vibrations and prevent damage to the generator’s exhaust system. As the rotor, shaft, and armature rotate, they move within the electric field created by the magnets. But how do these generators work? The following are the factors that you need to keep in mind while assessing the alternator of a generator: (a) Metal versus Plastic Housing – An all-metal design ensures durability of the alternator. Voltage Regulator (b) Rotor / Armature – This is the moving component that produces a rotating magnetic field in any one of the following three ways: (i) By induction – These are known as brushless alternators and are usually used in large   generators. This rotational energy caused by the high pressured steam turbine is used to generate electricity from an attached generator. (e) Fuel Water Separator / Fuel Filter – This separates water and foreign matter from the liquid fuel to protect other components of the generator from corrosion and contamination. Two of the most common applications of Gas Turbines in modern industries are Turbo Generators and Turbo Compressors. WHAT IS A WIND TURBINE? Some of these are mentioned below. All such installations are subject to the approval of the City Planning Division. So the generator will produce the AC power according to load demand, then it will be converted to DC and then to AC. Not every device will work with a hand-powered generator -- only ones that draw the kind of current and voltage put out by the generator will work. The turbine consists of the turbine wheel (1) and the turbine housing (2). As that steam flows past a turbine’s spinning blades, the steam expands and cools. Generators do not produce electricity on their own, they must first collect mechanical energy from an outside source. This increases wear and tear and more importantly, is hazardous to the user. A generator is simply a device that moves a magnet near a wire to create a steady flow of electrons. The cooling system and raw water pump should be flushed after every 600 hours and the heat exchanger should be cleaned after every 2,400 hours of generator operation. It reduces wear and tear, and ensures durability of the engine. (1) Voltage Regulator: Conversion of AC Voltage to DC Current – The voltage regulator takes up a small portion of the generator’s output of AC voltage and converts it into DC current. The Stirling engine (or Stirling's air engine as it was known at the time) was invented and patented in 1816. (a) Stator – This is the stationary component. These generators can be … When wind flows across the blade, the air pressure on one side of the blade decreases. Certain engines can also operate on a dual feed of both diesel and gas in a bi-fuel operation mode. Lubricating System (c) Generator gauges – The control panel also has meters for the measurement of output current and voltage, and operating frequency. Hydrogen removes heat from the generator and transfers it through a heat exchanger into a secondary cooling circuit that contains de-mineralized water as a coolant. (a) Electric start and shut-down – Auto start control panels automatically start your generator during a power outage, monitor the generator while in operation, and automatically shut down the unit when no longer required. The energy for rotation of the rotor is from a rotating turbine or an Internal Combustion engine. (3) Rotating Rectifiers: Conversion of AC Current to DC Current – These rectify the AC current generated by the exciter windings and convert it to DC current. • Low noise during operations (a) Cooling System (2) Exciter Windings: Conversion of DC Current to AC Current – The exciter windings now function similar to the primary stator windings and generate a small AC current. Instead, it uses the mechanical energy supplied to it to force the movement of electric charges present in the wire of its windings through an external electric circuit. A wind turbine turns wind energy into electricity using the aerodynamic force from the rotor blades, which work like an airplane wing or helicopter rotor blade. These need to be freestanding and should not be supported by the engine of the generator. The fast-spinning turbine drives a generator that converts a portion of the spinning energy into electricity. (c) Cast Iron Sleeve (CIS) in Engine Cylinder – The CIS is a lining in the cylinder of the engine. The energy from the exhaust gas turns the turbine wheel, and the gas then exits the turbine housing through an exhaust outlet area (4). In simple terms, a steam turbine works by using a heat source (gas, coal, nuclear, solar) to heat water to extremely high temperatures until it is converted into steam. A Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) captures exhaust heat from the gas turbine that would otherwise escape through the exhaust stack. This flow of electric charges constitutes the output electric current supplied by the generator. Transformer - The transformer inside the powerhouse takes the AC and converts it to higher-voltage current. This mechanical power can be used for specific tasks (such as grinding grain or pumping water) or a generator can convert this mechanical power into electricity. Different manufacturers have varied features to offer in the control panels of their units. The DC output voltage of the battery charger is set at 2.33 Volts per cell, which is the precise float voltage for lead acid batteries. This doesn’t affect bladeless wind turbines, any limitation associated with the “wake effect” is avoided. Raw/fresh water is sometimes  used as a coolant for generators, but these are mostly limited to specific situations like small generators in city applications or very large units over 2250 kW and above. No Spam. (ii) By permanent magnets – This is common in small alternator units. The generator’s engine is lubricated by oil stored in a pump. Note: in this particular case, we get electric energy produced from two different directions (as one coil is spinning up, the other is rotating downward) so the electrical output comes as an alternating current. This cycle continues till the generator begins to produce output voltage equivalent to its full operating capacity. This movement creates a voltage difference between the two ends of the wire or electrical conductor, which in turn causes the electric charges to flow, thus generating electric current. If the float voltage is very low, the battery will remain undercharged. The size of the engine is directly proportional to the maximum power output the generator can supply. The components work together to cause relative movement between the magnetic and electric fields, which in turn generates electricity. The force of the fluid on the blades spins/rotates the rotor shaft of a generator. The cycle continues till the generator output ramps up to its original full operating capacity. The exhaust pipe terminates outdoors and leads away from doors, windows and other openings to the house or building. Water from the stream is channelled into a pipeline to gain enough head (vertical drop the water falls) to power the system. The latter represents the magnetic field source while the former contains the conductor where the … It contains a set of electrical conductors wound in coils over an iron core. So that is why the inverter generators … (iii) By using an exciter – An exciter is a small source of direct current (DC) that energizes the rotor through an assembly of conducting slip rings and brushes. The rotor in a turbine generator could be attached to a set of wind turbine blades, a set of reaction or impulse steam turbine blades, hydro-turbine blades, or a gas engine. Once the generator reaches full operating capacity, the voltage regulator attains a state of equilibrium and produces just enough DC current to maintain the generator’s output at full operating level. Click the following link for further details regarding fuel tanks for generators. The turbine inside the generator rotates from an source of mechanical energy, which causes the copper coil to rotate within a magnetic field, which produces an electric current. The modern-day generator works on the principle of electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday in 1831-32. A home generator uses an internal combustion engine to drive an alternator. The current is created due to a law of electromagnetism called Faraday’s Law of Induction, discovered in the 1800’s. In this article and the video below, you are going to learn what a Gas Turbine is and how it works in a very easy-to-follow format. The manufacturer of the engine should be consulted to obtain full engine operation specifications and maintenance schedules. (3)  Attached to the turbine shaft is a coil of copper wire that rotates at the same speed as the turbine shaft and is often referred to as an armature. The generator, in turn, converts the mechanical (kinetic) energy of the rotor to electrical energy. When you need quiet, clean energy, an inverter generator is the way to go. If the float voltage is very high, it will shorten the life of the battery. If the float voltage is very low, the battery will remain undercharged. Just good stuff. 2.1K views View 3 Upvoters The battery charger keeps the generator battery charged by supplying it with a precise ‘float’ voltage. You should also consult the local city ordinances to determine whether your generator operation will need to obtain an approval from the local authorities to ensure you are conforming to local laws a protect against fines and other penalties. Solar’s modular concept for gas turbine generator sets has been optimized for transportation and civil works resulting in shorter installation and commissioning times, and reducing overall costs for our customers. Cooling & Exhaust System Wind turbine blades rotate when hit by the wind. A steam turbine generator works by heating water to extremely high temperatures until it is converted into steam, then the steam energy is used to rotate the blades of a turbine to create mechanical or rotational energy. However, OHV-engines are also more expensive than other engines. © Generator Source, LLC 1999-2020. (b) Overhead Valve (OHV) Engines versus non-OHV Engines – OHV engines differ from other engines in that the intake and exhaust valves of the engine are located in the head of the engine’s cylinder as opposed to being mounted on the engine block. (6)  Finally, the electricity produced can be extracted from the generator. For all other common applications, both residential and industrial, a standard radiator and fan is mounted on the generator and works as the primary cooling system. We respect your privacy & you may unsubscribe at any time. In modern generators the exciters are static. Heat recovery system captures exhaust. All generators, portable or stationary, have customized housings that provide a structural base support. Battery chargers are usually made of stainless steel to prevent corrosion. Expedited Shipping - US & Canada, Get $$$ for your used power generation equipment. Since the generator comprises moving parts in its engine, it requires lubrication to ensure durability and smooth operations for a long period of time. Battery Charger Most OHV-engines are equipped with CIS but it is essential to check for this feature in the engine of a generator. The turbine inside the generator rotates from an source of mechanical energy, which causes the copper coil to rotate within a magnetic field, which produces an electric current. It work on simple principle the energy from fluid flow turns the three propeller like blade around the rotor which is connected to the main shaft that spin the generator which produces electricity. This prompts the voltage regulator into action and the above cycle begins. As one end rotates upward through the magnetic field, the opposite side will be rotating downward, and eventually in a complete circle that is repeated many times. There are less common varieties with two blades, or with concrete or steel lattice towers. • Low emission levels. There are several factors that you need to keep in mind while assessing the engine of your generator. When you refill the fuel tank, ensure metal-to-metal contact between the filler nozzle and the fuel tank to avoid sparks. The battery charger has an isolated DC voltage output that does interfere with the normal functioning of the generator. The majority of wind turbines consist of three blades mounted to a tower made from tubular steel. (a) Pipe connection from fuel tank to engine – The supply line directs fuel from the tank to the engine and the return line directs fuel from the engine to the tank. (a) Type of Fuel Used – Generator engines operate on a variety of fuels such as diesel, gasoline, propane (in liquefied or gaseous form), or natural gas. It is the job of the turbine housing to guide the exhaust gas (3) into the turbine wheel. The main components of an electric generator can be broadly classified as follows: The engine is the source of the input mechanical energy to the generator. As a result, tidal power is very clean and helps to conserve natural resources. This DC current is fed to the rotor / armature to create an electromagnetic field in addition to the rotating magnetic field of the rotor / armature. The size of the alternator will vary and can be anything from around 10KW up to 40KW or more. When you add a load to a generator, its output voltage dips a little. The fuel tank usually has sufficient capacity to keep the generator operational for 6 to 8 hours on an average. Remote Monitoring Of Used Industrial Generators, Shipping Industrial Generators to Customers, Outside Field Service Sales Representative – Industrial Generators. As the name implies, this component regulates the output voltage of the generator. The CIS is not an expensive feature but it plays an important role in engine durability especially if you need to use your generator often or for long durations. The st e art function of a generator is battery-operated. 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