THE SPANISH COLONIAL TRADITION IN PHILIPPINE THEATER The Spanish colonial period lasted from 1565, when Legaspi arrived in Cebu, to 1898, when Aguinaldo declared Philippine Independence in Kawit, Cavite. Shortly after his return to Spain, Philip ordered an expedition to the Spice Islands, stating that its purpose was "to discover the islands of the west"[2] in order to set up an outpost in Asia and engage in the spice trade. the most influential of the Illustrados' writings causing further unrest in the islands, particularly the founding of the Katipunan. Before the colonial times, the Philippines had primitive inhabitants. After the Liberals won the Spanish Revolution of 1868, Carlos María de la Torre was sent to the Philippines to serve as governor-general (1869–1871). His novels were considered[by whom?] And that is the reason why many foreign countries had colonized our country. This law created the municipal organization that was later adopted, revised, and further strengthened by the American and Filipino governments that succeeded Spanish. Another reason for the relatively easy colonization of the Philippines is the utter lack of military capability of the multiple barangays. [24] However, the trade did result in cultural and commercial exchanges between Asia and the Americas that led to the introduction of new crops and animals to the Philippines such as tomatoes, avocado, guava, papaya, pineapple, and horses. taken from the Principalía, the noble class of pre-colonial origin. Its first worshipful master was Llorente. On the one hand, Spanish clergy were very destructive of local religious practices. Some Japanese ships visited the Philippines in the 1570s in order to export Japanese silver and import Philippine gold. In this later period, agriculture was finally opened to the European population, which before was reserved only for indigenous Filipinos. All were defeated by the Spanish and their Filipino allies by 1597. [4]:77 In 1569, Legazpi transferred to Panay and founded a second settlement on the bank of the Panay River. Trinidad and Josefa Rizal, Marina Dizon, Romualda Lanuza, Purificacion Leyva, and many others join the masonic lodge. The Spanish ships were not badly damaged and casualties were low. The Spaniards started to explore the Philippines in the early 16th century when Ferdinand Magellan led a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands and reached Cebu in 1521. The Cavite Mutiny implicated the priests Mariano Gómez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora (see Gomburza) whose executions would influence the subversive activities of the next generation of Filipino nationalists, José Rizal, who then dedicated his novel, El filibusterismo to these priests. The galleon trade with Acapulco, Mex., assured Manila’s commercial primacy as well. Under the cedula system taxpayers were individually responsible to Spanish authorities for payment of the tax, and were subject to summary arrest for failure to show a cedula receipt. The Philippine islands first came to the attention of Europeans with the Spanish expedition around the world led by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in 1521. [23], While the trade did bring some results which were beneficial to the Philippines, most effects were disadvantageous. On June 19, the armada was split, with six ships sailing for the shipyard of Mindoro and the other six remaining in Manila Bay. [22] These goods were then exported to New Spain and ultimately Europe by way of Manila. Pedro Paterno mediated between the two sides for the signing of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato. The actual work of colonization began in 1565, when Miguel Lopez de Legazpi concluded treaties of friendship with the native chiefs. Although the Spanish forces consisted of just two Manila galleons and a galley with crews composed mainly of Filipino volunteers, against three separate Dutch squadrons, totaling eighteen ships, the Dutch squadrons were severely defeated in all fronts by the Spanish-Filipino forces, forcing the Dutch to abandon their plans for an invasion of the Philippines. On August 13, 1898, during the Battle of Manila (1898), Americans took control of the city. In addition, men conscripted from Peru, were also sent to settle Zamboanga City in Mindanao, to wage war upon Muslim defenders[12] There were also communities of Spanish-Mestizos that developed in Iloilo,[13] Negros[14] and Vigan. The Dutch next attacked Pampanga, where they captured the fortified monastery, taking prisoners and executing almost 200 Filipino defenders. The polista were according to law, to be given a daily rice ration during their working days which they often did not receive.[31]. [4]:79 Legazpi then made Manila the capital of the Philippines. The trade lasted for over two hundred years, and ceased in 1815 just before the secession of American colonies from Spain.[25]. Spanish counterattacks drove him back and he retreated to the mountains of Balara and Morong and from there engaged in guerrilla warfare. Forty-four years after Ferdinand Magellan landed in the Philippines and died in the Battle of Mactan in 1521, the Spanish explored and colonialized the islands, starting with the founding of Cebu by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi in 1565. The conditions of the armistice included the self-exile of Aguinaldo and his officers in exchange for $800,000 or 40,104,392.82542 pesos to be paid by the colonial government. The Western World was quickly changing and sought less political control from the Roman Catholic Church. [citation needed]. [42] By August 30, the revolt had spread to eight provinces. [citation needed]. This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 15:01. By 1896 the Katipunan had a membership by the thousands. Magellan made a blood compact with the local chieftain of Cebu, Rajah Humabon as a sign of friendship. The tropical mestizo heritage of the Philippines, home to many artistic and architectural jewels of universal value, was the result of the originality of the Filipinos to innovate styles and building systems based on materials available in their midst, and on the other hand, of the ineffable imprint left by more than 3 centuries of the Spanish colonization in this archipelago. The decree was published in Manila on August 5, 1598. The galleon trade then returned from Acapulco with a rich treasure of Mexican silver pesos, wines, wool, sardines, official documents, the royal subsidy, and new officials for the colony. [citation needed] All executive power of the local government stemmed from him and as regal patron, he had the authority to supervise mission work and oversee ecclesiastical appointments. Get a verified writer to help you with The Spanish Colonization in the Philippines. On that date, Governor-General Ramon Blanco declared a state of war in these provinces and placed them under martial law. Appointed dignitaries or the staff of a diocese, if the captain general failed to do so, Functioned as the Supreme Court and advised the Captain General, Initially composed of four judges (oidores), an attorney-general (fiscal), and a constable, with attached advocates for the accused, a defender of the naturales (“natives”), and other minor officials; the number of oidores and fiscales would be increased after, Took charge of government upon the death of the governor (mayor) up to the arrival of his successor, Exercised executive and judiciary powers in the province, Until the mid-19th century, he had the privilege to engage in trade (indulto de comercio), which occasioned many abuses against the local population, No provision was made restricting the alcalde mayor to engage in trade, If a provincia was large, the alcalde mayor had a corregidor to administer over, Provincial council which assisted the alcalde mayor, Composed of a public prosecutor, finance administrator, treasurer, vicars forane, provincial doctor, and four principles of the capital elected by the capitanes municipales of the province, Administered over a pueblo, assisted by other pueblo officials, Position was initially restricted to the local married men of the elite (principalia), By 1768, the position became elective. He was arrested, tried and executed for treason, sedition and conspiracy on December 30, 1896. The Spanish colonial period ended with the Philippine Revolution and Spanish-American War in 1898, which marked the beginning of the American colonialization of the Philippines. The Spanish colonization in the Philippines lead to us to make some questions in our mind on how does the Filipino survived? The downfall of Marcos and return of democratic government. A Legend of Freedom: Francisco Dagohoy and the Rebels of Bohol", "Philip II and the "Philippine Referendum" of 1599", "Philip II, the Philippines, and the Hispanic World", Shamanism, Catholicism and Gender Relations in Colonial Philippines 1521-1685, Timeline of Philippine History: Spanish colonization, National Intelligence Coordinating Agency, Independence of Spanish continental Americas, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northernmost France, Law of coartación (which allowed slaves to buy their freedom, and that of others), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_the_Philippines_(1565–1898)&oldid=991336811, 1521 establishments in the Spanish Empire, Articles with failed verification from August 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2011, All Wikipedia articles written in Philippine English, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2013, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from August 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2013, Articles with failed verification from October 2011, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from August 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Civil and Spiritual Authority (through Royal Patronage), Municipal council composed of the municipal captain, the chief lieutenant, the lieutenant of police, the lieutenant of fields and the lieutenant of livestock, all of which were elected by the residents of the municipio, Composed of 6 to 10 appointed royal councilors, Governed all the Spanish colonies in the King's name, and had legislative power, Served as the court of appeals for the colonies, Initially exercised executive (as Governor), legislative, judicial (as President of the Audiencia), military (as Captain General), and ecclesiastical (as Vice Patron) powers, By 1821 or 1875, the office became Governor General, Appointed by the King with the advice of the council and probably the Viceroy prior to 1821, Had full spiritual authority over the army and navy as military Vicar General of the islands, Advised the Captain General, especially in matters concerning the governance and provisioning of the Church in the Philippines. The first Filipino Masonic lodge was Revoluccion. On June 12, the armada attacked the Spanish port of Cavite. The unpacified military zones (corregimiento), such as Mariveles and Mindoro, were headed by the corregidores. This could be augmented through the special privilege of "indulto de commercio" where all people were forced to do business with him. The second battle is the most famous and celebrated of the three, with nearly even forces (10 ships vs 10 ships), resulting in the Dutch losing their flagship and retreating. That same year, the existence of the Katipunan was discovered by the colonial authorities. The datus and other representatives of the old noble class took advantage of the introduction of the Western concept of absolute ownership of land to claim as their own fields cultivated by their various retainers, even though traditional land rights had been limited to usufruct. [35], The early success at Manila did not enable the British to control the Philippines. Spanish-Filipino forces kept the British confined to Manila. [citation needed] At one time, his supporters, including Padre Burgos and Joaquín Pardo de Tavera, serenaded him in front of the Malacañan Palace. Known as the First, Second and Third Battles of Playa Honda. [6] When the Spanish arrived in the area, they incorporated this territory to the Captaincy of the Philippines following the 1582 Cagayan battles. Any person elected acquired elite status, diluting the political power given by the Spanish to the hereditary datus the old, Equivalent of the pre-Maura Law gobernadorcillo, Elected by the residents of the municipio, Administered over a barangay of 40 to 50 families, Position was originally hereditary among the local elites of the pre-colonial period. The socioeconomic consequences of the Spanish policies that accompanied this shift reinforced class differences. The small increase of Peninsulares from the Iberian Peninsula threatened the secularization of the Philippine churches. Their scions studied in the best universities of Europe where they learned the ideals of liberty from the French and American Revolutions. In the later years of the 18th century, Governor-General Basco introduced economic reforms that gave the colony its first significant internal source income from the production of tobacco and other agricultural exports. Laktaw established on January 6, 1892, the Nilad, the first Masonic lodge in the Philippines. Consequently, no specific provision was made for the Philippines. Cabezas should be literate in Spanish and have good moral character and property. After King Philip II (for whom the islands are named) had dispatched three further expeditions that ended in disaster, he sent out Miguel López de Legazpi, who established the first permanent Spanish settlement, in Cebu, in 1565. A short time later, the Solidaridad grew. 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